146 countries are parties to the Protocol. 1 January 1951″, as well as giving States party to the Convention the option of interpreting this as “events occurring in Europe” or “events occurring in Europe or elsewhere”, the 1967 Protocol removed both the temporal 1967 protocol relating to the status of refugees pdf geographic restrictions.
This was needed in the historical context of refugee flows resulting from decolonization. 1951 Convention and chosen to use the geographically restricted definition the option to retain that restriction. This page was last edited on 30 July 2017, at 00:30. The discussion forms part of a larger discussion on fragmentation of international law. While some scholars conceive each branch as a self-contained regime distinct from other branches, others regard the three branches as forming a larger normative system that seeks to protect the rights of all human beings at all time. Both the Convention and the Protocol are open to states, but each may be signed separately. 145 states have ratified the Convention, and 146 have ratified the Protocol.
These instruments only apply in the countries that have ratified an instrument, and some countries have ratified these instruments subject to various reservations. There is a variety of definitions as to who is regarded as a refugee, usually defined for the purpose of a particular instrument. The variation of definitions regarding refugees has made it difficult to create a concrete and single vision of what constitutes a refugee following the original refugee convention. The 1967 Protocol removed the temporal restrictions, which restricted refugee status to those whose circumstances had come about “as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951”, and the geographic restrictions which gave States party to the Convention the option of interpreting this as “events occurring in Europe” or “events occurring in Europe or elsewhere”. However, it also gave those States which had previously ratified the 1951 Convention and chosen to use the geographically restricted definition the option to retain that restriction. OAU Convention, added more objectivity based on significant consideration to the 1951 Convention. Persons who flee their countries because their lives, safety or freedom have been threatened by generalised violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violation of human rights or other circumstances which have seriously disturbed public order.