The field of ergonomics employs anthropometry to optimize human interaction with equipment and workplaces. Anthropometry involves the systematic measurement of the physical properties of the human body, primarily dimensional descriptors of body size anthropometrics and ergonomics pdf shape. Anthropometric studies today are conducted to investigate the evolutionary significance of differences in body proportion between populations whose ancestors lived in different environments. On a micro evolutionary level anthropologists use anthropometric variation to reconstruct small-scale population history.
For instance John Relethford’s studies of early 20th-century anthropometric data from Ireland show that the geographical patterning of body proportions still exhibits traces of the invasions by the English and Norse centuries ago. Today anthropometry can be performed with three-dimensional scanners. A global collaborative study to examine the uses of three-dimensional scanners for health care was launched in March 2007. The Body Benchmark Study will investigate the use of three-dimensional scanners to calculate volumes and segmental volumes of an individual body scan. In 2001 the UK conducted the largest sizing survey to date using scanners. SizeUK showed that the nation had become taller and heavier but not as much as expected.
Since 1951, when the last women’s survey had taken place, the average weight for women had gone up from 62 to 65 kg. File:Example foot pressure measurement device. The spatial and temporal resolutions of the images generated by commercial pedobarographic systems range from approximately 3 to 10 mm and 25 to 500 Hz, respectively. Finer resolution is limited by sensor technology. For a stance phase duration of approximately 0. 150,000 pressure values, depending on the hardware specifications, are recorded for each step.
Brain volume data and other craniometric data are used in mainstream science to compare modern-day animal species, and to analyze the evolution of the human species in archeology. Forensic anthropologists study the human skeleton in a legal setting. A forensic anthropologist can assist in the identification of a decedent through various skeletal analyses that produce a biological profile. One part of a biological profile is a person’s racial or ancestral affinity. Many of these characteristics are only a matter of frequency among particular races: their presence or absence of one or more does not automatically classify an individual into a racial group. Today, ergonomics professionals apply an understanding of human factors to the design of equipment, systems and working methods in order to improve comfort, health, safety, and productivity.