Basic music composition techniques pdf

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However, basic music composition techniques pdf is not by itself a system of composition, nor is it a style. English also as “serial music”.

It is sometimes used more specifically to apply only to music where at least one element other than pitch is subjected to being treated as a row or series. The structure of the row, however, does not in itself define the structure of a composition, which requires development of a comprehensive strategy. The series is not an order of succession, but indeed a hierarchy—which may be independent of this order of succession. 4 times an equal number of elements of equal duration within an equal global time is distributed in the most equable way, unequally with regard to one another, over the temporal space: from the greatest possible coïncidence to the greatest possible dispersion. 66 intervallic relations among the 12 pitches being virtually present. Prohibited intervals, like the octave, and prohibited successional relations, such as premature note repetitions, frequently occur, although obscured in the dense contexture. And the chromatic total remains active only, and provisionally, as a general reference.

In the 1960s Pousseur took this a step further, applying a consistent set of predefined transformations to pre-existent music. Pousseur used a large number of different quotations, themselves arranged into a “scale” for serial treatment, so as to bring coherence and order to the work. Composers such as Debussy and Strauss found differing ways of stretching the limits of the tonal system in order to accommodate their ideas. After a brief period of free atonality, Arnold Schoenberg and others began exploring tone rows, in which an ordering of the twelve pitches of the equal tempered chromatic scale is used as the source material of a composition. So serial thinking is something that’s come into our consciousness and will be there forever: it’s relativity and nothing else. It just says: Use all the components of any given number of elements, don’t leave out individual elements, use them all with equal importance and try to find an equidistant scale so that certain steps are no larger than others. It’s a spiritual and democratic attitude toward the world.

The stars are organized in a serial way. Whenever you look at a certain star sign you find a limited number of elements with different intervals. If we more thoroughly studied the distances and proportions of the stars we’d probably find certain relationships of multiples based on some logarithmic scale or whatever the scale may be. Igor Stravinsky’s adoption of twelve-tone serial techniques offers an example of the level of influence that serialism had after the Second World War.

Because many of the basic techniques of serial composition have analogs in traditional counterpoint, uses of inversion, retrograde and retrograde inversion from before the war are not necessarily indicative of Stravinsky adopting Schoenbergian techniques. Stravinsky began to consciously study Schoenberg’s music, as well as the music of Webern and later composers, and began to use the techniques in his own work, using, for example, serial techniques applied to fewer than twelve notes. Over the course of the 1950s he used procedures related to Messiaen, Webern and Berg. While it is difficult to label each and every work as “serial” in the strict definition, every major work of the period has clear uses and references to its ideas. I had acquired an extremely intimate knowledge, came across as crude and unfinished when seen in reality.

Some music theorists have criticized serialism on the basis that the compositional strategies employed are often incompatible with the way information is extracted by the human mind from a piece of music. Ruwet between phoneme and the single note. This was because these composers had long since acknowledged the lack of differentiation found in punctual music and, becoming increasingly aware of the laws of perception and complying better with them, “paved the way to a more effective kind of musical communication, without in the least abandoning the emancipation that they had been allowed to achieve by this ‘zero state’ that was punctual music”. This was achieved, amongst other things, by the development of the concept of “groups”, which allows structural relationships to be defined not only between individual notes but also at higher and higher levels, up to the overall form of a piece. Later writers have continued both lines of reasoning. Within the community of modern music, exactly what constituted serialism was also a matter of debate.

The conventional English usage is that the word “serial” applies to all twelve-tone music, which is a subset of serial music, and it is this usage that is generally intended in reference works. Nevertheless, a large body of music exists that is called “serial” but does not employ note-rows at all, let alone twelve-tone technique, e. When serialism is not equated with twelve-tone technique, a contributing problem is that the word “serial” is seldom if ever defined. The vocabulary of serialism eventually became rooted in set theory, and uses a seemingly quasi-mathematical vocabulary to describe how the basic sets are manipulated to produce the final result. The basis for serial composition is Schoenberg’s twelve-tone technique, where the twelve notes of the basic chromatic scale are organized into a row. This “basic” row is then used to create permutations, that is, rows derived from the basic set by reordering its elements.

The row may be used to produce a set of intervals, or a composer may have wanted to use a particular succession of intervals, from which the original row was created. Because there are tonal chord progressions that use all twelve notes, it is possible to create pitch rows with very strong tonal implications, and even to write tonal music using twelve-tone technique. For example, if duration is to be serialized, then a set of durations must be specified. The selected set or sets, their permutations and derived sets form the basic material with which the composer works.

Sets of more or fewer pitches, or of elements other than pitch may be treated analogously. The principle is that in a row, no element of the aggregate should be reused until all of the other members have been used, and each member must appear only in its place in the series. This rule is violated in numerous works still termed “serial”. The composer then presents the aggregate. If there are multiple serial sets, or if several parameters are associated with the same set, then a presentation will have these values calculated.