The discussion forms part of a larger discussion on fragmentation of international law. While some scholars conceive each branch as a self-contained regime distinct from other branches, others regard the three branches as forming a larger normative system that seeks to protect the rights of all human beings at all time. Both the Convention and the Protocol are open to states, but each may be signed separately. 145 states have ratified the Convention, and 146 have ratified cartagena declaration on refugees 1984 pdf Protocol.
These instruments only apply in the countries that have ratified an instrument, and some countries have ratified these instruments subject to various reservations. There is a variety of definitions as to who is regarded as a refugee, usually defined for the purpose of a particular instrument. The variation of definitions regarding refugees has made it difficult to create a concrete and single vision of what constitutes a refugee following the original refugee convention. The 1967 Protocol removed the temporal restrictions, which restricted refugee status to those whose circumstances had come about “as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951”, and the geographic restrictions which gave States party to the Convention the option of interpreting this as “events occurring in Europe” or “events occurring in Europe or elsewhere”.
However, it also gave those States which had previously ratified the 1951 Convention and chosen to use the geographically restricted definition the option to retain that restriction. OAU Convention, added more objectivity based on significant consideration to the 1951 Convention. Persons who flee their countries because their lives, safety or freedom have been threatened by generalised violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violation of human rights or other circumstances which have seriously disturbed public order. Various regions and countries have different variations of refugee law. They all stem from the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol which relates to refugee status. The United States became a party to this Protocol the following year in 1968. This law incorporated the International Convention’s definitions of a refugee into U.
The law also created legal basis for the admission of refugees into the U. A important aspect of this law is how an individual goes about applying for status. A person may meet the definition of refugee but may not be granted refugee status. If the individual is inside of the U. In order to be considered a refugee in the U. The first step of being granted this status is to receive a referral to the U. After the person is referred, a U.
Citizenship and Immigration Services officer located abroad will conduct an interview to determine refugee resettlement eligibility inside the U. If the person is approved as a refugee, he or she will then be provided with many forms of assistance. These include a loan for travel, advice for travel, a medical exam, and a culture orientation. After the refugee is resettled, he or she is eligible for medical and cash assistance.
Cash and Medical Assistance Program which completely reimburses the assistance in which states provide refugees. The refugee is eligible for this cash and medical assistance up to eight months after their arrival date. Human rights are rights a person is guaranteed on the basis only that he or she was born as a human-being. Refugee law and international human rights law are closely connected in content but differ in their function. The main difference of their function is the way in which international refugee law considers state sovereignty while international human rights law do not. In this case, a certain level of sovereignty is taken away from a country. This basic right of non-refoulement conflicts with the basic right of sovereign state to expel any undocumented aliens.
The Case of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child”. Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. United Nations High Commission for Refugees. What Are Refugee Rights Under International Law? Comprehensive program for the study of international and comparative refugee law at the University of Michigan Law School. Searchable electronic repository of case law documents relating to the legal definition of refugee status under the 1951 Convention. Documents and other resources related to refugee and human rights law.
Refugee Protection: A Guide to International Refugee Law. The Collective Responsibility of States to Protect Refugees, by Agnès G. This page was last edited on 15 October 2017, at 14:28. Het verdrag bepaalt de rechten van vluchtelingen uit conflictsituaties voor 1951, terwijl een in 1967 opgesteld protocol bij de conventie ook vluchtelingen van na die datum regelt.
In de Conventie van 1951 wordt dit recht verder geconcretiseerd. 4 december 1952 en anno 2008 hadden 147 staten ofwel het verdrag, het protocol of beide ondertekend. Een persoon wordt niet geacht van de bescherming van het land waarvan hij de nationaliteit bezit, verstoken te zijn, indien hij, zonder geldige redenen ingegeven door gegronde vrees, de bescherming van één van de landen waarvan hij de nationaliteit bezit, niet inroept. Bovendien geldt als “vluchteling” elke persoon die krachtens de Regelingen van 12 mei 1926 en 30 juni 1928 of krachtens de Overeenkomsten van 28 oktober 1933 en 10 februari 1938, het Protocol van 14 september 1939 of het Statuut van de Internationale Vluchtelingenorganisatie als vluchteling werd beschouwd. Dit waren de regelingen die golden onder de Volkenbond. De bedoeling hiervan was dat personen die reeds voordien een vluchtelingstatus hadden, die niet door het verdrag uit 1951 zouden verliezen.