A possible reason for demand characteristics is the participant’s characteristics of perception pdf that he or she will somehow be evaluated and thus figures out a way to ‘beat’ the experiment to attain good scores in the alleged evaluation. Demand characteristics cannot be eliminated from experiments, but demand characteristics can be studied to see their effect on the experiment.
Weber and Cook have described some demand characteristics as involving the participant taking on a role in the experiment. The participant does not want to “ruin” the experiment. Researchers use a number of different approaches for dealing with demand characteristics in research situations. Deceive participants about one or more aspects of the research to conceal the research hypothesis. This 4-item scale is usually presented at the end of a research session.
In responding to the scale, participants indicate the extent to which they believe that they are aware of the researchers’ hypotheses during the research. Researchers then compute a mean PARH score and correlate this with their key effects. Significant correlations indicate that demand characteristics may be related to the research results. Nonsignificant correlations provide tentative evidence against the demand characteristics explanation. Pre-experimental questionnaires can also cause demand characteristics as well as post-experimental questionnaires. A different experimenter than the one that conducted the actual experiment to the participants should distribute the questionnaires. Conceal independent and dependent measures, so they do not provide clues about the research hypothesis.
The experimenter must display self-discipline to obtain a valid inquiry. If the experiment is performed again, avoid asking the participants what they have experienced. To avoid experimenter bias, have more than one experimenter. If the purpose of the experiment is not clear or ambiguous, then the participants may guess many different hypotheses and cause the data to be skewed even more. Do not inform the person who has contact with the participants about the research hypotheses. Orne proposed the heuristic assumption that involved two variables of a subject’s behavior: 1.
Defined as experimental variables 2. Demand Characteristics and the concept of Quasi-Controls. Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. The good subject effect: Investigating participant demand characteristics. Journal of General Psychology, 135, 151-165.
Role-related behavior of the subject and psychologist and its effect upon psychological data. The Nebraska symposium on motivation. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press. The preceding paper attributes the concept to Weber, S. Subject effects in laboratory research: An examination of subject roles, demand characteristics, and valid inference. The Perceived Awareness of the Research Hypothesis Scale: Assessing the influence of demand characteristics.
On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. The central tendency of a social group can affect ratings of its intragroup variability in the absence of social identity concerns. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 410-415. This page was last edited on 31 October 2017, at 08:58.