White” chess openings for white pdf the player who moves second is referred to as “Black”. In most cases, the squares are not actually white and black, but a light color and a contrasting dark color.
In old chess writings, the sides are often called Red and Black, because those were the two colors of ink then commonly available when hand-drawing or printing chess position diagrams. In the earlier ages of chess, the board was simply divided into sixty-four squares, without any difference of colour”. The checkering of the squares was a European innovation, introduced in the thirteenth century. The convention of White having the first move is much more recent than that. 1824, wrote that Black moves first. Anderssen had the Black pieces but moved first.
Each of those games began 1. As late as the mid-to-late 19th century, the practice of White moving first had not yet become standard. Staunton observed in 1871 that “many players still cultivate the foolish habit of playing exclusively with one colour. On October 19, 1857, Mr. Löwenthal also wrote that London’s chess clubs had adopted a new rule that White always moves first. Philadelphia played White in both games, but moved first only in the second game. The one having the move, in every case, is to play with the white pieces.