Clinical chemistry tests pdf

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In addition to the substances mentioned in tables clinical chemistry tests pdf, other tests include a description of color and appearance. The following are examples of color change causes and not a complete listing. Reddish-orange: Intake of certain medications or other substances.

Rusty-yellow to reddish-brown: Intake of certain medications or other substances. Other colors: Various substances ingested in food or drink, particularly up to 48 hours prior to the presence of colored urine. Brief changes in odor are usually merely interesting and not medically significant. Example: the abnormal smell many people can detect after eating asparagus. A urinalysis is frequently ordered during the workup of acute renal failure. Full kidney function can be detected through the simple dipstick method.

Urine K may be ordered in the workup of hypokalemia. In case of gastrointestinal loss of K, the urine K will be low. In case of renal loss of K, the urine K levels will be high. Decreased levels of urine K are also seen in hypoaldosteronism and adrenal insufficiency. This condition is divided into primary and secondary types.

Proteins may be measured with the Albustix test. And also in case of testicular cancer in male. May be present as intact RBCs, which indicate bleeding. RBCs incur mechanical damage during the glomerular passage, and then osmotic damage along the tubules, so get dysmorphic features. Painless hematuria of nonglomerular origin may be a sign of urinary tract malignancy, which may warrant a more thorough cytological investigation.