For laws specific to the Competition law book pdf. Competition law is implemented through public and private enforcement.
Since the 20th century, competition law has become global. National and regional competition authorities across the world have formed international support and enforcement networks. National competition law usually does not cover activity beyond territorial borders unless it has significant effects at nation-state level. The protection of international competition is governed by international competition agreements. Transactions that are considered to threaten the competitive process can be prohibited altogether, or approved subject to “remedies” such as an obligation to divest part of the merged business or to offer licenses or access to facilities to enable other businesses to continue competing.
Substance and practice of competition law varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. To protect the grain trade, heavy fines were imposed on anyone directly, deliberately, and insidiously stopping supply ships. Florentine municipal laws of 1322 and 1325. Zeno rescinded all previously granted exclusive rights.