This article has multiple issues. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Apple produced several concept videos concept of knowledge pdf the idea. In one vignette a university professor returns home and turns on his computer, in the form of a tablet the size of a large-format book.
The agent is a bow-tie wearing butler who appears on the screen and informs him that he has several calls waiting. While he is doing this, the computer informs him that a colleague is calling, and they then exchange data through their machines while holding a video based conversation. In another such video, a young student uses a smaller handheld version of the system to prompt him while he gives a class presentation on volcanoes, eventually sending a movie of an exploding volcano to the video “blackboard”. In a final installment a user scans in a newspaper by placing it on the screen of the full-sized version, and then has it help him learn to read by listening to him read the scanned results, and prompting when he pauses. The videos were funded and sponsored by Bud Colligan, Director of Apple’s higher education marketing group, written and creatively developed by Hugh Dubberly and Doris Mitsch of Apple Creative Services, with technical and conceptual input from Mike Liebhold of Apple’s Advanced Technologies Group and advice from Alan Kay, then an Apple Fellow.
The videos were produced by The Kenwood Group in San Francisco and directed by Randy Field. The director of photography was Bill Zarchy. The post-production mix was done by Gary Clayton at Russian Hill Recording for The Kenwood Group. The product industrial design was created by Gavin Ivester and Adam Grosser of Apple design. D on application navigation and what was then called hypermedia. Information Navigation: The Future of Computing”. While working for Apple CEO John Sculley at the time, Arora built the technology to show fluid access to linked data displayed in a friendly manner an emerging area of research at Apple.
The Knowledge Navigator video premiered in 1987 at Educom, the leading higher education conference, in a keynote by John Sculley, with demos of multimedia, hypertext and interactive learning directed by Bud Colligan. It was criticized as being an unrealistic portrayal of the capacities of any software agent in the foreseeable future, or even in a distant future. This page was last edited on 8 November 2017, at 08:55. A concept map is a visual organizer that can enrich students’ understanding of a new concept. Using a graphic organizer, students think about the concept in several ways. Most concept map organizers engage students in answering questions such as, “What is it?
Concept maps deepen understanding and comprehension. Why use a concept map? It helps children organize new information. It helps students to make meaningful connections between the main idea and other information. They’re easy to construct and can be used within any content area. Note: It is important that teachers spend time introducing younger students to charts and diagrams prior to using this strategy.
There are several ways to construct concept maps. Model how to identify the major ideas or concepts presented in a selection of text as you read. Organize the ideas into categories. Remind students that your organization may change as you continue to read and add more information. Limit the amount of information on the map to avoid frustration.
After students have finished the map, encourage them to share and reflect on how they each made the connections between concepts. Encourage students to use the concept map to summarize what was read. Help students develop a framework for organizing their knowledge of a content area text by providing visuals and key vocabulary words. How a concept map could be used with a topic such as the study of weather. Here’s a more complex concept map from a study on bats. How concept maps have been used in early childhood education to help students understand more about trees, their bodies, and other familiar topics.
Here’s a step-by-step on building concept maps for a variety of topics: plants, football, and the Cinderella fairytale. Teachers can use concept maps as a pre-reading strategy by inviting students to share what they already know about a particular concept. While reading, teachers should ask students to help add to the map as a group using an overhead or large chart. This provides a visual aid for building upon their prior knowledge with new information they have gathered from reading. Teachers may wish to have students practice writing skills by asking students to write on their own concept map. Teach vocabulary words explicitly and use simple words.
Be sure the pointed part of each arrow is clear. Design the graphics to minimize directional confusion. When applicable, allow students to draw pictures or use cut out pictures as well as words. Visual tools for constructing knowledge. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervisors of Curriculum Development. Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations.