Confucius believed that the welfare of a country depended on the moral cultivation of its people, beginning from the nation’s leadership. Confucius’ disciples of conversations between the Master and dao of capital pdf, which were then collected and jointly edited by the disciples after Confucius’ death in 473 BC.
Confucius’ first- and second-generation pupils. Many modern scholars now believe that the work was compiled over a period of around two hundred years, with some questioning the authenticity of some of the sayings. Han dynasty, some scholars have proposed dates as late as 140 BC for the text’s compilation. China in a mostly complete form, and the book acquired its final, complete form during Han dynasty. Han dynasty was incomplete and formed only a part of a much larger work. The Lu version contained twenty chapters, and the Qi version contained twenty-two chapters, including two chapters not found in the Lu version. Of the twenty chapters that both versions had in common, the Lu version had more passages.
Each version had its own masters, schools, and transmitters. The new version did not contain the two extra chapters found in the Qi version, but it split one chapter found in the Lu and Qi versions in two, so it had twenty-one chapters, and the order of the chapters was different. Lu version in twenty-seven places. Of these twenty-seven differences, the received text only agrees with the old text version in two places. 50 BC, during the Western Han dynasty. 1973, but no transcription of its contents was published until 1997.
Lu version, the Qi version, the old text version, or a different version that was independent of these three traditions. He Yan’s commentary was eventually displaced as the definitive, standard commentary by Zhu Xi’s commentary. Zhu’s work took part in the context of a period of renewed interest in Confucian studies, in which Chinese scholars were interested in producing a single “correct” intellectual orthodoxy that would “save” Chinese traditions and protect them from foreign influences, and in which scholars were increasingly interested in metaphysical speculation. Four Books, something that He Yan had not done.