Further documentation is available here. Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the motor vehicle emissions—emission control system pdf produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines. Methane is not directly toxic, but is more difficult to break down in a catalytic converter, so in effect a “non-methane hydrocarbon” regulation can be considered easier to meet.
Removing a person from a CO-poisoned atmosphere to fresh air stops the injury but does not yield prompt recovery, unlike the case where a person is removing from an asphyxiating atmosphere . Toxic effects delayed by days are also common. Very fine particulate matter has been linked to cardiovascular disease. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. These studies ultimately attributed a significant portion of air pollution to the automobile, and concluded air pollution is not bounded by local political boundaries. At that time, such minimal emission control regulations as existed in the U. The ineffective local regulations were gradually supplanted by more comprehensive state and federal regulations.
Both agencies, as well as other state agencies, now create and enforce emission regulations for automobiles in the United States. By 1964, most new cars sold in the U. PCV quickly became standard equipment on all vehicles worldwide. State of California for 1966 model year for cars sold in that state, followed by the United States as a whole in model year 1968. The standards were progressively tightened year by year, as mandated by the EPA. By the 1974 model year, the emission standards had tightened such that the de-tuning techniques used to meet them were seriously reducing engine efficiency and thus increasing fuel usage.
1975 and later model year cars. The production and distribution of unleaded fuel was a major challenge, but it was completed successfully in time for the 1975 model year cars. All modern cars are now equipped with catalytic converters and leaded fuel is nearly impossible to buy in most First World countries. The agencies charged with regulating exhaust emissions vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, even in the same country. Advances in engine and vehicle technology continually reduce the toxicity of exhaust leaving the engine, but these alone have generally been proved insufficient to meet emissions goals. Therefore, technologies to detoxify the exhaust are an essential part of emissions control. One of the first-developed exhaust emission control systems is secondary air injection.
Originally, this system was used to inject air into the engine’s exhaust ports to provide oxygen so unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons in the exhaust would finish burning. The air injected upstream of the converter supports combustion in the exhaust headpipe, which speeds catalyst warmup and reduces the amount of unburned hydrocarbon emitted from the tailpipe. There are two types of catalytic converter, a two-way and a three-way converter. Two-way converters were common until the 1980s, when three-way converters replaced them on most automobile engines. Evaporative emissions are the result of gasoline vapors escaping from the vehicle’s fuel system. This page was last edited on 28 November 2017, at 18:29.
Protocol which came into effect in May 2005. These regulations stemmed from concerns about the contribution of the shipping industry to “local and global air pollution and environmental problems. By July 2010 a revised more stringent Annex VI was enforced with significantly tightened emissions limits. Also other areas may be added via protocol defined in Annex VI. Air pollution from “noxious gases from ships’ exhausts” was already being discussed internationally. MARPOL is short for Marine Pollution.
In 1997 the regulations regarding air pollution from ships as described in Annex VI of the MARPOL Convention were adopted. The current convention is a combination of 1973 Convention and the 1978 Protocol. It entered into force on 2 October 1983. According to the IMO, a United Nations agency responsible for the “safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine pollution by ships”, as of May 2013, 152 states, representing 99. 2 per cent of the world’s shipping tonnage, are parties to the convention.