Myth that gave credit to a woman who, in the end, populated the world. Sojourner Truth addressed the issue of women having limited rights due to men’s flawed perception of women. Truth argued that if a woman of color can perform tasks that were supposedly limited to men, gender race and class in media pdf any woman of any color could perform those same tasks. Speech after Arrest for Illegal voting” in 1872.
Anthony questioned the authoritative principles of the constitution and its male gendered language. She also critiqued the constitution for its male gendered language and questioned why women should have to abide by laws that do not specify women. Politically this represented a shift from an ideological alignment comfortable with the right, to one more radically associated with the left. As the title implies, the starting point is the implicit inferiority of women, and the first question de Beauvoir asks is “what is a woman”? A myth invented by men to confine women to their oppressed state. In her examination of myth, she appears as one who does not accept any special privileges for women.
She also criticized it for not taking account of the situation for women outside the west. Feminist psychoanalysis deconstructed the phallic hypotheses regarding the Unconscious. There are a number of distinct feminist disciplines, in which experts in other areas apply feminist techniques and principles to their own fields. Additionally, these are also debates which shape feminist theory and they can be applied interchangeably in the arguments of feminist theorists. In western thought, the body has been historically associated solely with women, whereas men have been associated with the mind.
For example, women’s bodies have been objectified throughout history through the changing ideologies of fashion, diet, exercise programs, cosmetic surgery, childbearing, etc. This contrasts to men’s role as a moral agent, responsible for working or fighting in bloody wars. The race and class of a woman can determine whether her body will be treated as decoration and protected, which is associated with middle or upper-class women’s bodies. On the other hand, the other body is recognized for its use in labor and exploitation which is generally associated with women’s bodies in the working-class or with women of color. The standard sex and gender model consists of ideologies based on the sex and gender of every individual and serve as “norms” for societal life. The contemporary sex and gender model corrects and broadens the horizons of the sex and gender ideologies.
It revises the ideology of sex in that an individual’s sex is actually a social construct which is not limited to either male or female. The ideology of gender remains a social construct but is not as strict and fixed. Instead, gender is easily malleable, and is forever changing. In conclusion, the contemporary sex gender model is accurate because both sex and gender are rightly seen as social constructs inclusive of the wide spectrum of sexes and genders and in which nature and nurture are interconnected. This debate proposes such questions as “Are there ‘women’s ways of knowing’ and ‘women’s knowledge’? And “How does the knowledge women produce about themselves differ from that produced by patriarchy?
A feminist approach to epistemology seeks to establish knowledge production from a woman’s perspective. It theorizes that from personal experience comes knowledge which helps each individual look at things from a different insight. Intersectionality is the examination of various ways in which people are oppressed, based on the relational web of dominating factors of race, sex, class, nation and sexual orientation. Intersectionality “describes the simultaneous, multiple, overlapping, and contradictory systems of power that shape our lives and political options”. While this theory can be applied to all people, and more particularly all women, it is specifically mentioned and studied within the realms of black feminism.
This debate raises the issue of understanding the oppressive lives of women that are not only shaped by gender alone but by other elements such as racism, classism, ageism, heterosexism, ableism etc. In this debate, women writers have addressed the issues of masculinized writing through male gendered language that may not serve to accommodate the literary understanding of women’s lives. Feminist theorists attempt to reclaim and redefine women through re-structuring language. Feminist psychology critiques the fact that historically psychological research has been done from a male perspective with the view that males are the norm. Feminist psychology is oriented on the values and principles of feminism.