Now they are mostly used for electric power generation. Water wheels have been used for hundreds of years for industrial power. The migration from water wheels to hydraulic turbines pdf free download turbines took about one hundred years.
They also made extensive use of new materials and manufacturing methods developed at the time. 19th century and is derived from the Greek word “τύρβη” for “whirling” or a “vortex”. The main difference between early water turbines and water wheels is a swirl component of the water which passes energy to a spinning rotor. This additional component of motion allowed the turbine to be smaller than a water wheel of the same power. They could process more water by spinning faster and could harness much greater heads.
The tangential water inflow of the millrace made the submerged horizontal wheel in the shaft turn like a true turbine. 3rd or early 4th century AD. The horizontal water wheel with angled blades was installed at the bottom of a water-filled, circular shaft. The water from the mill-race entered the pit tangentially, creating a swirling water column which made the fully submerged wheel act like a true turbine. It had a horizontal axis and was a precursor to modern water turbines. It is a very simple machine that is still produced today for use in small hydro sites.
In the 18th century, a Dr. Barker invented a similar reaction hydraulic turbine that became popular as a lecture-hall demonstration. The stationary outlet also had curved guides. He also conducted sophisticated tests and developed engineering methods for water turbine design. It is still the most widely used water turbine in the world today. The Francis turbine is also called a radial flow turbine, since water flows from the outer circumference towards the centre of runner. Inward flow water turbines have a better mechanical arrangement and all modern reaction water turbines are of this design.