Hydroponics advantages and disadvantages pdf

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Nozzles are used for three purposes: to distribute a liquid over an area, to increase liquid surface area, and create impact force on a solid surface. Single-fluid or hydraulic spray nozzles utilize the kinetic energy of the liquid to break it up hydroponics advantages and disadvantages pdf droplets. This most widely used type of spray nozzle is more energy efficient at producing surface area than most other types.

As the fluid pressure increases, the flow through the nozzle increases, and the drop size decreases. Many configurations of single fluid nozzles are used depending on the spray characteristics desired. The simplest single fluid nozzle is a plain orifice nozzle as shown in the diagram. This nozzle often produces little if any atomization, but directs the stream of liquid. At lower pressures, this type of nozzle is often used for tank cleaning, either as a fixed position compound spray nozzle or as a rotary nozzle. A surface impingement nozzle causes a stream of liquid to impinge on a surface resulting in a sheet of liquid that breaks up into drops. The impingement surface can be formed in a spiral to yield a spiral shaped sheet approximating a full cone spray pattern or a hollow-cone spray pattern.

The spiral design generally produces a smaller drop size than pressure swirl type nozzle design, for a given pressure and flow rate. This design is clog resistant due to the large free passage. The stationary core induces a rotary fluid motion which causes the swirling of the fluid in the swirl chamber. A film is discharged from the perimeter of the outlet orifice producing a characteristic hollow cone spray pattern. Air or other surrounding gas is drawn inside the swirl chamber to form an air core within the swirling liquid. Many configurations of fluid inlets are used to produce this hollow cone pattern depending on the nozzle capacity and materials of construction.