Orally aggressive: chewing gum and the ends of inside out and outside in berzoff pdf, etc. Sexual unfulfillment if fixation occurs in this stage.
In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, and that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. In the case of too little gratification, the infant might become passive upon learning that gratification is not forthcoming, despite having produced the gratifying behavior. If the child obeys the id, and the parents yield, he or she might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder. Oedipus complex applies with complete strictness to the male child only, and that we are right in rejecting the term ‘Electra complex’, which seeks to emphasize the analogy between the attitude of the two sexes”. Freud thus considered a girl’s Oedipal conflict to be more emotionally intense than that of a boy, potentially resulting in a submissive woman of insecure personality. Id and the drives of the Ego. In a boy, a phallic-stage fixation might lead him to become an aggressive, over-ambitious, vain man.
Oedipus conflict or of the Ego’s failure to direct his or her energies towards socially acceptable activities. The genital stage affords the person the ability to confront and resolve his or her remaining psychosexual childhood conflicts. As in the phallic stage, the genital stage is centered upon the genitalia, but the sexuality is consensual and adult, rather than solitary and infantile. Yet, the boy Hans was unable to relate fearing horses to fearing his father. Freud noted that “Hans had to be told many things that he could not say himself” and that “he had to be presented with thoughts, which he had, so far, shown no signs of possessing”.
Many Freud critics believe the memories and fantasies of childhood seduction Freud reported, were not real memories, but were constructs that Freud created and forced upon his patients. Freud based the theory of psychosexual development upon a misinterpretation. Furthermore, contemporary research confirms that although personality traits corresponding to the oral stage, the anal stage, the phallic stage, the latent stage, and the genital stage are observable, they remain undetermined as fixed stages of childhood, and as adult personality traits derived from childhood. The libido contains conceptual, Platonic, erotic and sexual components. Constituents and Components are formed through a phase of position formation and a realization phase. Churchill Livingstone:Edinburgh and London, p.
Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh and London pp. Oxford University Press:New York pp. Follies of the Wise: Dissenting Essays. Вестник неврологии, психиатрии и нейрохирургии. This page was last edited on 2 December 2017, at 02:50. An individual interacts with the external world as well as responds to internal forces. In Freud’s 1926 monograph, Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety, he revised his theory of anxiety as well as delineated a more robust ego.
The ego mediates among conflicting pressures and creates the best compromise. Instead of being passive and reactive to the id, the ego was now a formidable counterweight to it, responsible for regulating id impulses, as well as integrating an individual’s functioning into a coherent whole. The modifications made by Freud in Inhibitions, Symptoms, and Anxiety formed the basis of a psychoanalytic psychology interested in the nature and functions of the ego. This marked the transition of psychoanalysis from being primarily an id psychology, focused on the vicissitudes of the libidinal and aggressive drives as the determinants of both normal and psychopathological functioning, to a period in which the ego was accorded equal importance and was regarded as the prime shaper and modulator of behavior. Anna Freud focused her attention on the ego’s unconscious, defensive operations and introduced many important theoretical and clinical considerations. Anna Freud argued the ego was predisposed to supervise, regulate, and oppose the id through a variety of defenses. She described the defenses available to the ego, linked them to the stages of psychosexual development during which they originated, and identified various psychopathological compromise formations in which they were prominent.
The analyst needed to be attuned to the moment-by-moment process of what the patient talked about in order to identify, label, and explore defenses as they appeared. For Anna Freud, direct interpretation of repressed content was less important than understanding the ego’s methods by which it kept things out of consciousness. Her work provided a bridge between Freud’s structural theory and ego psychology. These included perception, attention, memory, concentration, motor coordination, and language. Through Hartmann’s focus on ego functions, and how an individual adapts to his or her environment, he worked to create both a general psychology and a clinical instrument with which an analyst could evaluate an individual’s functioning and formulate appropriate therapeutic interventions. Based on Hartmann’s propositions, the task of the ego psychologist was to neutralize conflicted impulses and expand the conflict-free spheres of ego functions.