This article is about instantaneous center method pdf killing of animals. Euthanasia methods are designed to cause minimal pain and distress. The methods of euthanasia can be divided into pharmacological and physical methods. Acceptable pharmacological methods include injected drugs and gases that first depress the central nervous system and then cardiovascular activity.
The most common methods are discussed here, but there are other acceptable methods used in different situations. Some veterinarians perform a two-stage process: an initial injection that simply renders the pet unconscious and a second shot that causes death. This allows the owner the chance to say goodbye to a live pet without their emotions stressing the pet. It also greatly mitigates any tendency toward spasm and other involuntary movement which tends to increase the emotional upset that the pet’s owner experiences. For horses and cattle, other drugs may be available. This may be due to premature cardiac arrest.
After the animal has died, it is not uncommon for the body to have posthumous body jerks, or for the animal to have a sudden bladder outburst. Carbon dioxide is often used on its own for euthanasia of wild animals. There are mixed opinions on whether it causes distress when used on its own, with human experiments lending support to the evidence that it can cause distress and equivocal results in non-humans. US have banned its use in animal shelters: although carbon monoxide poisoning is not particularly painful, the conditions in the gas chamber are often not humane.