Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. A given return on investment received at a given time is worth more than the same return received at a later time, so the latter would yield a lower IRR than the former, if all other factors are equal. IRR equal to the specified interest rate. An investment which has the same total returns as the preceding investment, but delays returns for one internal rate of return method pdf more time periods, would have a lower IRR.

This lower IRR would indicate the interest rate of a fixed income investment that would have the same overall value as the delayed investment. For example, a corporation will compare an investment in a new plant versus an extension of an existing plant based on the IRR of each project. IRR, the more desirable it is to undertake the project. If all projects require the same amount of up-front investment, the project with the highest IRR would be considered the best and undertaken first.

In the example cited above, of a corporation comparing an investment in a new plant versus an extension of an existing plant, there may be reasons the company would not engage in both projects. Both the internal rate of return and the net present value can be applied to liabilities as well as investments. For a liability, a lower internal rate of return is preferable to a higher one. A share repurchase proceeds if returning capital to shareholders has a higher internal rate of return than candidate capital investment projects or acquisition projects at current market prices. A rate of return for which this function being zero is the internal rate of return. In this case, the answer is 5.

Different accounting packages may provide functions for different accuracy levels. Of particular interest is the case where the stream of payments consists of a single outflow, followed by multiple inflows occurring at equal periods. There is always a single unique solution for IRR. 10 times more accurate than the secant formula for a wide range of interest rates and initial guesses.

If applied iteratively, either the secant method or the improved formula always converges to the correct solution. Both the secant method and the improved formula rely on initial guesses for IRR. IRR of a single project with the required rate of return, in isolation from any other projects, is equivalent to the NPV method. NPV of that project will be positive, and vice versa. However, using IRR to sort projects in order of preference does not result in the same order as using NPV. One possible investment objective is to maximize the total net present value of projects.

When the objective is to maximize total value, the calculated IRR should not be used to choose between mutually exclusive projects. NPV vs discount rate comparison for two mutually exclusive projects. When the objective is to maximize total value, IRR should not be used to compare projects of different duration. For example, the net present value added by a project with longer duration but lower IRR could be greater than that of a project of similar size, in terms of total net cash flows, but with shorter duration and higher IRR. Despite a strong academic preference for NPV, surveys indicate that executives prefer IRR over NPV. Apparently, managers find it easier to compare investments of different sizes in terms of percentage rates of return than by dollars of NPV.

However, NPV remains the “more accurate” reflection of value to the business. IRR, as a measure of investment efficiency may give better insights in capital constrained situations. However, when comparing mutually exclusive projects, NPV is the appropriate measure. Maximizing total value is not the only conceivable possible investment objective. An alternative objective would for example be to maximize long-term return. Such an objective would rationally lead to accepting first those new projects within the capital budget which have the highest IRR, because adding such projects would tend to maximize overall long-term return. To see this, consider two investors, Max Value and Max Return.