Concerns over food security have existed throughout history. Food security, they said, is the “availability at all times of adequate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuations in production and prices”. Later definitions added demand and access issues to the definition. The final report of the 1996 World Food Summit states that food security “exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access iuu fishing di indonesia pdf sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”.
Household food security exists when all members, at all times, have access to enough food for an active, healthy life. Food security incorporates a measure of resilience to future disruption or unavailability of critical food supply due to various risk factors including droughts, shipping disruptions, fuel shortages, economic instability, and wars. 2013, an estimated 842 million people were suffering from chronic hunger. United Nations, or FAO, identified the four pillars of food security as availability, access, utilization, and stability.
The 1996 World Summit on Food Security declared that “food should not be used as an instrument for political and economic pressure”. Food security indicators and measures are derived from country level household income and expenditure surveys to estimate per capita caloric availability. In general the objective of food security indicators and measures is to capture some or all of the main components of food security in terms of food availability, access and utilization or adequacy. The factors influencing household food access are often context specific.
Thus the financial and technical demands of collecting and analyzing data on all aspects of household’s experience of food access and the development of valid and clear measures remain a huge challenge. Cornell and Tufts University and Africare and World Vision. The methodology for this research is based on collecting data on a single question: “What do you do when you do not have enough food, and do not have enough money to buy food? The questions asked are about anxiety that the household budget is inadequate to buy enough food, inadequacy in the quantity or quality of food eaten by adults and children in the household, and instances of reduced food intake or consequences of reduced food intake for adults and for children.
USDA criticized this measurement and the relationship of “food security” to hunger, adding “it is not clear whether hunger is appropriately identified as the extreme end of the food security scale. The report noted that Asia and Latin America have achieved reductions in rates of undernourishment that put these regions on track for achieving the Millennium Development Goal of halving the prevalence of undernourishment by 2015. The UN noted that about 2 billion people do not consume a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals. Some have killed millions and substantially diminished the population of a large area. Food insecurity has distressed Mexico throughout its history and continues to do so in the present. Between 2003 and 2005, the total Mexican food supply was well above the sufficient to meet the requirements of the Mexican population, averaging 3,270 kilocalories per daily capita, higher than the minimum requirements of 1,850 kilocalories per daily capita.