Java important programs pdf

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Please forward this error screen to 65. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Coffee in Indonesia began with its colonial history, and java important programs pdf played an important part in the growth of the country.

Indonesia is located within an ideal geography for coffee plantations, near the equator and with numerous mountainous regions across the islands, creating well suited micro-climates for the growth and production of coffee. Indonesia produced an estimated 540,000 metric tons of coffee in 2014. In general, Indonesia’s arabica coffees have low acidity and strong body, which makes them ideal for blending with higher acidity coffees from Central America and East Africa. The first seedlings failed due to flooding in Batavia. The second shipment of seedlings was sent in 1699 with Hendrik Zwaardecroon. 2000 pounds were shipped in 1717. Indonesia was the first place, outside of Arabia and Ethiopia, where coffee was widely cultivated.

Today, in the Kota area of Jakarta, one can find echoes of the seagoing legacy that built the city. Sail driven ships still load cargo in the old port. The Bahari museum occupies a former warehouse of the VOC, which was used to store spices and coffee. 1839 to replace the flag pole that stood at the head of wharves, where the VOC ships docked to load their cargos.

Since annual incomes in Holland in the 18th century were between 200 and 400 Guilders, this was equivalent of several hundred dollars per kilogram today. By the end of the 18th century, the price had dropped to 0. 6 Guilders per kilogram and coffee drinking spread from the elite to the general population. Production of export crops were delivered to government warehouses instead of taxes. Coffee, along with sugar and indigo, was one of the main crops produced under this highly exploitative colonial system.

West Sumatra, South Sulawesi and the Minahasa region of North Sulawesi. Or the Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company. This book helped to change Dutch public opinion about the “Cultivation System” and colonialism in general. By the mid 1870s the Dutch East Indies expanded arabica coffee growing areas in Sumatra, Bali, Sulawesi and Timor. In Sulawesi the coffee was thought to have been planted around 1850.

Indonesia, wiping out most of the Arabica Typica cultivar. East Java in 1900 as a substitute, especially at lower altitudes, where the rust was particularly devastating. Robusta coffee was introduced to smallholders around Kerinci around 1915, and then spread quickly across southern Sumatra during the 1920s, where production soon eclipsed Java. The region remains the most important producing region by volume today. Dutch-owned plantations on Java were nationalized in the 1950s, soon after independence. PTPN – Perusahaan Terbatas Perkebunan Nusantara, and revitalized with new varieties of Coffea arabica in the 1950s. These varieties were also adopted by smallholders through the government and various development programs.

Indonesia’s coffee is grown by smallholders on farms averaging around one hectare . Some of this production is organic and many farmers’ cooperatives and exporters are internationally certified to market organic coffee. There are more than 20 varieties of Coffea arabica being grown commercially in Indonesia. However, both the Bergandal and Sidikalang varieties of Typica can still be found in Sumatra, especially at higher altitudes.

This variety, which is also called “Tim Tim”, is a natural cross between Arabica and Robusta. The HDT was planted in Aceh in 1979. This is a group of varieties was originally developed in India, from the Bourbon cultivar. The most common are S-288 and S-795, which are found in Lintong, Aceh, Flores and other areas. These include Rambung and Abyssinia, which were brought to Java in 1928. Since then, they have been brought to Aceh as well.

Another group of Ethiopian varieties found in Sumatra are called “USDA”, after an American project that brought them to Indonesia in the 1950s. Caturra is a mutation of Bourbon coffee, which originated in Brazil. This cross between arabica and robusta has a reputation for poor flavour. However, there are numerous types of Catimor, including one that farmers have named “Ateng-Jaluk”. On-going research in Aceh has revealed locally adapted Catimor varieties with excellent cup characteristics.