Labour availability map for the world. In 2011, India had about 487 million workers compared to China’s karnataka labour laws pdf million and United States’ 154 million.
In 2012, there were around 487 million workers in India, the second largest after China. The organised sector includes workers employed by the government, state-owned enterprises and private sector enterprises. In 2008, the organised sector employed 27. 5 million workers, of which 17.
3 million worked for government or government owned entities. These include family owned shops and street vendors. Above is a self-employed child labourer in the unorganised retail sector of India. Labour at an unorganised handicraft manufacturing enterprise. Over 94 percent of India’s working population is part of the unorganised sector. India refers to licensed organisations, that is, those who are registered and pay GST. These include the publicly traded companies, incorporated or formally registered entities, corporations, factories, shopping malls, hotels, and large businesses.
India’s Ministry of Labour, in its 2008 report, classified the unorganised labour in India into four groups. This classification categorized India’s unorganised labour force by occupation, nature of employment, specially distressed categories and service categories. The unorganised occupational groups include small and marginal farmers, landless agricultural labourers, sharecroppers, fishermen, those engaged in animal husbandry, beedi rolling, labeling and packing, building and construction workers, leather workers, weavers, artisans, salt workers, workers in brick kilns and stone quarries, workers in saw mills, and workers in oil mills. A separate category based on nature of employment includes attached agricultural labourers, bonded labourers, migrant workers, contract and casual labourers. Another separate category dedicated to distressed unorganised sector includes toddy tappers, scavengers, carriers of head loads, drivers of animal driven vehicles, loaders and unloaders. The unorganised sector has low productivity and offers lower wages. Even though it accounted for over 94 percent of workers, India’s unorganised sector created just 57 percent of India’s national domestic product in 2006, or about 9 fold less per worker than the organised sector.
According to Bhalla, the productivity gap sharply worsens when rural unorganised sector is compared to urban unorganised sector, with gross value added productivity gap spiking an additional 2 to 4 fold depending on occupation. Some of lowest income jobs are in the rural unorganised sectors. Poverty rates are reported to be significantly higher in families where all working age members have only worked the unorganised sector throughout their lives. Agriculture, dairy, horticulture and related occupations alone employ 52 percent of labour in India. About 30 million workers are migrant workers, most in agriculture, and local stable employment is unavailable for them. 10 percent each of all workers nationwide, as of 2010. It also reported that India had about 58 million unincorporated non-Agriculture enterprises in 2010.