Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations maslow a theory of human motivation pdf humans’ innate curiosity. Maslow used the terms “physiological”, “safety”, “belonging” and “love”, “esteem”, “self-actualization”, and “self-transcendence” to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. The goal of Maslow’s Theory is to attain the sixth level or stage: self transcendent needs. The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called “deficiency needs” or “d-needs”: esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs.
The human brain is a complex system and has parallel processes running at the same time, thus many different motivations from various levels of Maslow’s hierarchy can occur at the same time. Maslow spoke clearly about these levels and their satisfaction in terms such as “relative”, “general”, and “primarily”. Instead of stating that the individual focuses on a certain need at any given time, Maslow stated that a certain need “dominates” the human organism. Thus Maslow acknowledged the likelihood that the different levels of motivation could occur at any time in the human mind, but he focused on identifying the basic types of motivation and the order in which they would tend to be met. Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail. Once a person’s physiological needs are relatively satisfied, their safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior.
This level is more likely to predominate in children as they generally have a greater need to feel safe. This need is especially strong in childhood and it can override the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents. For example, some large social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, and gangs. Some examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. This need for belonging may overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition.
These activities give the person a sense of contribution or value. However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their self-esteem until they accept who they are internally. Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a “lower” version and a “higher” version. The “lower” version of esteem is the need for respect from others.
This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The “higher” version manifests itself as the need for self-respect. This “higher” version takes precedence over the “lower” version because it relies on an inner competence established through experience. Deprivation of these needs may lead to an inferiority complex, weakness, helplessness etc .
Maslow states that while he originally thought the needs of humans had strict guidelines, the “hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated”. What a man can be, he must be. This quotation forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need refers to what a person’s full potential is and the realization of that potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.
Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. For example, one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent. In another, the desire may be expressed athletically. For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or inventions. As previously mentioned, Maslow believed that to understand this level of need, the person must not only achieve the previous needs, but master them. In his later years, Abraham Maslow explored a further dimension of needs, while criticizing his own vision on self-actualization. The self only finds its actualization in giving itself to some higher goal outside oneself, in altruism and spirituality, which is essentially the desire to reach infinite.
Nurses can apply Maslow’s hierarchy of basic needs in the assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation of patient care. It helps the nurse identify unmet needs as they become health care needs, and allows the nurse to locate the patient on the health-illness continuum and to incorporate the human dimensions and health models into meeting needs. Breathing, circulation, temperature, intake of food and fluids, elimination of wastes, movement. Relationships with others, communications with others, support systems, being part of community, feeling loved by others. Hope, joy, curiosity, happiness, accepting Self. Thinking, learning, decision making, values, beliefs, fulfillment, helping others. All basic human needs are interrelated and may require nursing actions at more than one level at a given time.
Recent research appears to validate the existence of universal human needs, although the hierarchy proposed by Maslow is called into question. Maslow’s hierarchy, from sustenance and mating to group membership and justice. In their extensive review of research based on Maslow’s theory, Wahba and Bridwell found little evidence for the ranking of needs that Maslow described or for the existence of a definite hierarchy at all. The needs and drives of those in individualistic societies tend to be more self-centered than those in collectivist societies, focusing on improvement of the self, with self-actualization being the apex of self-improvement. In collectivist societies, the needs of acceptance and community will outweigh the needs for freedom and individuality.