O level maths transformation notes pdf

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A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally. The only direct links in a hierarchy, insofar as they are hierarchical, are to one’s immediate superior or to one of one’s subordinates, although a system that is largely hierarchical can also incorporate alternative hierarchies. All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another nevertheless can be “horizontally” linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find o level maths transformation notes pdf common direct or indirect superior, and then down again. Organizational forms exist that are both alternative and complementary to hierarchy.

Hierarchies have their own special vocabulary. Most hierarchies use a more specific vocabulary pertaining to their subject, but the idea behind them is the same. Hierarchies can be categorized based on the “maximum degree”, the highest degree present in the system as a whole. For many people, the word “hierarchy” automatically evokes an image of a branching hierarchy. The broad category of branching hierarchies can be further subdivided based on the degree.

Most often, systems intuitively regarded as hierarchical have at most a moderate span. Therefore, a flat hierarchy is often not viewed as a hierarchy at all. Dionysius is credited with first use of it as an abstract noun. This is an example of a hierarchy visualized with a triangle diagram. An example of a triangle diagram appears to the right.

More recently, as computers have allowed the storage and navigation of ever larger data sets, various methods have been developed to represent hierarchies in a manner that makes more efficient use of the available space on a computer’s screen. Visual hierarchy is also important for proper organization of files on computers. An example of visually representing hierarchy is through the Nested clusters. The Nested clusters represents hierarchical relationships by using layers of information. This structure of representing hierarchy is most effective in representing simple relationships. For example, when directing someone to open a file on a computer desktop, one may first direct them towards the main folder, then the subfolders within the main folder.

They will keep opening files within the folders until the designated file is located. For more complicated hierarchies, the stair structure represents hierarchical relationships through the use of visual stacking. Visually imagine the top of a downward staircase beginning at the left and descending on the right. The child elements are towards the bottom of the stairs and the parent elements are at the top. This structure is effective when representing more complicated hierarchies where steps are not placed in obvious sequences.

Further steps are concealed unless all of the steps are revealed in sequence. In the computer desktop example, a file that is being sought after can only be found once another file is opened. The link for the desired file is within another document. All the steps must be completed until the final destination is reached. Within this system, each element shares a particular unambiguous property. Hierarchy” is particularly used to refer to a poset in which the classes are organized in terms of increasing complexity. Operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are often performed in a certain sequence or order.

Usually, addition and subtraction are performed after multiplication and division has already been applied to a problem. The use of parenthesis is also a representation of hierarchy, for they show which operation is to be done prior to the following ones. In this problem, typically one would multiply 5 by 7 first, based on the rules of mathematical hierarchy. But when the parentheses are placed, one will know to do the operations within the parentheses first before continuing on with the problem. These rules are largely dominant in algebraic problems, ones that include several steps in order to solve.

The use of hierarchy in mathematics is beneficial in order to quickly and efficiently solve a problem without having to go through the process of slowly dissecting the problem. Most of these rules are now known as the proper way into solving certain equations. Each doll is encompassed inside another until the smallest one is reached. Each doll is encompassed by another doll, all the way to the outer doll. The outer doll holds all of the inner dolls, the next outer doll holds all the remaining inner dolls, and so on.

Matryoshkas represent a nested hierarchy where each level contains only one object, i. A square can always also be referred to as a quadrilateral, polygon or shape. In this way, it is a hierarchy. However, consider the set of polygons using this classification.