Orthopedic physical examination tests pdf

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A complete knee examination is always done for a knee complaint. Both of your knees will be checked, and the results for the injured knee will be compared to those of the healthy knee. Your health professional will also check that the nerves and blood vessels are intact. Your health professional will: Inspect your knee visually for redness, orthopedic physical examination tests pdf, deformity, or skin changes.

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Test your knee’s range of motion and listen for sounds. In a passive test, your doctor will move your leg and knee joint. In an active test, you will use your muscles to move your leg and knee joint. At the same time, your doctor will listen for popping, grinding, or clicking sounds.

In this test, you lie on the table with your knee bent at a 90-degree angle and your foot flat on the table. Your doctor will put his or her hands around the top of your leg just below your knee and push straight back on your leg. In this test, while you lie on the table, your doctor will slightly bend your knee and hold your thigh with one hand. The Lachman test diagnoses a complete ACL tear. Your doctor will put his or her hands around the top of your leg just below your knee and pull straight back on your leg.

In this test, while you lie on the table, your doctor holds your knee and the bottom of your foot. If there is pain and the sound or feeling of a click, the menisci may be damaged. In this test, your doctor will use an instrument to measure the looseness of your knee. An arthrometer has two sensor pads and a pressure handle that allows your doctor to put force on the knee. Your doctor then measures pressure by pulling or pushing on the pressure handle. Your exam may also include other tests to assess the degree of the injury and to identify damage to other parts of the knee.

The knee has its natural strength. The knee is not tender when touched. Both knees look and move the same way. There are no signs of fluid in or around the knee joint.

The knee and leg move normally when the ligaments are examined. There is no abnormal clicking, popping, or grinding when knee structures are moved or stressed. The toes are pink and warm, and there is no numbness in the lower leg or foot. But the results of a knee exam vary depending on whether the exam is for a sudden injury to the knee or for long-term symptoms and also depending on how long it has been since the injury occurred. An abnormal finding does not always mean that your knee is injured. Your doctor will use the results of the exam, plus your medical history, to make a diagnosis. These tests provide the best information if there is little or no knee swelling, you are able to relax, and your doctor is able to move your knee and leg freely.