A simplified procedure for determining whether two sounds represent the same or different phonemes. The cases on the extreme left and extreme right are those in which the sounds are allophones. Replacing a sound by another allophone of the same phoneme will usually not change the meaning of a word, although sometimes phonemes and allophones pdf result may sound non-native or even unintelligible. The term was popularized by G.
Every time a user’s speech is vocalized for a given phoneme, it will be slightly different from other utterances, even for the same speaker. There are many allophonic processes in English, like lack of plosion, nasal plosion, partial devoicing of sonorants, complete devoicing of sonorants, partial devoicing of obstruents, lengthening and shortening vowels, and retraction. In English, a voiced obstruent is partially devoiced next to a pause or next to a voiceless sound, inside a word or across its boundary. Because the choice of allophone is seldom under conscious control, people may not realize they exist. The difference can also be felt by holding the hand in front of the lips. English distinction is much more obvious than it is to the English speaker who has learned since childhood to ignore it. English speaker, for whom they are allophones of a single phoneme.
There are many examples for allophones in languages other than English. Typically, languages with a small phoneme inventory allow for quite a lot of allophonic variation. Links of language names go to the specific article or subsection on the phenomenon. However, when there are complementary allophones of a phoneme, so that the allophony is significant, things become more complicated.
Often, if only one of the allophones is simple to transcribe, in the sense of not requiring diacritics, then that representation is chosen for the phoneme. However, there may be several such allophones, or the linguist may prefer greater precision than this allows. In such cases a common convention is to use the “elsewhere condition” to decide which allophone will stand for the phoneme. The “elsewhere” allophone is the one that remains once the conditions for the others are described by phonological rules. For example, English has both oral and nasal allophones of its vowels.
English are considered to be allophones of oral phonemes. In other cases, an allophone may be chosen to represent its phoneme because it is more common in the world’s languages than the other allophones, because it reflects the historical origin of the phoneme, or because it gives a more balanced look to a chart of the phonemic inventory. The Systematization of the Whorf Hypothesis”. Operational Models in Synchronic Linguistics: A Symposium Presented at the 1958 Meetings of the American Anthropological Association. When the occurrence of one allophone is predictable when compared to the other, as in this case, we call this complementary distribution. This page was last edited on 29 October 2017, at 23:28.
This article is about the speech unit. Allophonic variation may be conditioned, in which case a certain phoneme is realized as a certain allophone in particular phonological environments, or it may be free in which case it may vary randomly. However, descriptions of particular languages may use different conventional symbols to represent the phonemes of those languages. A phoneme is a sound or a group of different sounds perceived to have the same function by speakers of the language or dialect in question.