Php unit testing tutorial pdf

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I began searching for quality instructional material to use in the classroom. The material found on the tutorialspoint website met all of the criteria. I now have quality material to use in my classroom at no cost. W3Schools is optimized for learning, testing, and training. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and basic understanding. Software testing can also provide an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation.

Software testing involves the execution of a software component or system component to evaluate one or more properties of interest. As the number of possible tests for even simple software components is practically infinite, all software testing uses some strategy to select tests that are feasible for the available time and resources. The job of testing is an iterative process as when one bug is fixed, it can illuminate other, deeper bugs, or can even create new ones. Software testing can provide objective, independent information about the quality of software and risk of its failure to users or sponsors.

For example, in a phased process, most testing occurs after system requirements have been defined and then implemented in testable programs. A primary purpose of testing is to detect software failures so that defects may be discovered and corrected. Testing cannot establish that product functions properly under all conditions but can establish only that it does not function properly under specific conditions. The scope of software testing often includes examination of code as well as execution of that code in various environments and conditions as well as examining the aspects of code: does it do what it is supposed to do and do what it needs to do. In the current culture of software development, a testing organization may be separate from the development team. There are various roles for testing team members.

Information derived from software testing may be used to correct the process by which software is developed. Every software product has a target audience. For example, the audience for video game software is completely different from banking software. Therefore, when an organization develops or otherwise invests in a software product, it can assess whether the software product will be acceptable to its end users, its target audience, its purchasers and other stakeholders. Software testing aids the process of attempting to make this assessment. Not all software defects are caused by coding errors. One common source of expensive defects is requirement gaps, e.

Software faults occur through the following processes. Not all defects will necessarily result in failures. A defect can turn into a failure when the environment is changed. A single defect may result in a wide range of failure symptoms. Software developers can’t test everything, but they can use combinatorial test design to identify the minimum number of tests needed to get the coverage they want. Combinatorial test design enables users to get greater test coverage with fewer tests.

Whether they are looking for speed or test depth, they can use combinatorial test design methods to build structured variation into their test cases. 2002 reports that software bugs cost the U. More than a third of this cost could be avoided if better software testing was performed. China, the Philippines and India being preferred destinations.

It is commonly believed that the earlier a defect is found, the cheaper it is to fix it. The following table shows the cost of fixing the defect depending on the stage it was found. 100 times more to fix than if it had already been found by the requirements review. The data from which this table is extrapolated is scant. The “smaller projects” curve turns out to be from only two teams of first-year students, a sample size so small that extrapolating to “smaller projects in general” is totally indefensible.

The GTE study does not explain its data, other than to say it came from two projects, one large and one small. The paper cited for the Bell Labs “Safeguard” project specifically disclaims having collected the fine-grained data that Boehm’s data points suggest. Boehm’s graph, and no numerical results which clearly correspond to his data points. Boehm doesn’t even cite a paper for the TRW data, except when writing for “Making Software” in 2010, and there he cited the original 1976 article. There exists a large study conducted at TRW at the right time for Boehm to cite it, but that paper doesn’t contain the sort of data that would support Boehm’s claims. Software testing can be done by dedicated software testers.

Until the 1980s, the term “software tester” was used generally, but later it was also seen as a separate profession. Software testing can also be performed by non-dedicated software testers. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. There are many approaches available in software testing.