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The societal inequality in India is represented by the grossly inadequate representation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes in employment and education due to historic, societal and cultural reasons. The reservation is undertaken to address the historic oppression, inequality and discrimination faced by those communities and to give these communities a place. However, there has been a serious debate about reservation. The Constitution prohibits untouchability under its Article 17, and obligates the state to make special provision for the betterment of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, also questions whether such special provisions of reservation would not be considered discriminatory, as it would encourage caste-discrimination and caste based politics. Consideration has also been given to economically backward within the community itself in providing reservations. Reservation is governed by constitutional laws, statutory laws, and local rules and regulations.
However, in the recent years there have been complete Reservation Exclusion Agitations among some of the other general section of population due to a notion of denying them the access to full opportunity in the nation. The primary objective of the present-day Indian reservation system is to enhance the social and educational status of underprivileged communities and thus improve their lives. Demands for various forms of positive discrimination had been made, for example, in 1882 and 1891. He provided free education to everyone and opened several hostels to make it easier for them to receive it.
His 1902 measures created 50 per cent reservation for backward communities. Electorates for other religions, such as Islam and Sikhism, remained separate. India’s affirmative action programme was launched in 1950 and is the oldest such programme in the world. A common form of caste discrimination in India was the practice of untouchability. SCs were the primary targets of the practice, which was outlawed by the new Constitution of India.
In 1954, the Ministry of Education suggested that 20 per cent of places should be reserved for the SCs and STs in educational institutions with a provision to relax minimum qualifying marks for admission by 5 per cent wherever required. In 1982, it was specified that 15 per cent and 7. SC and ST candidates, respectively. In 1980 the commission’s report recommended that a reserved quota for OBCs of 27 per cent should apply in respect of services and public sector bodies operated by the Union Government.
It called for a similar change to admissions to institutes of higher education, except where states already had more generous requirements. It was not until the 1990s that the recommendations were implemented in Union Government jobs. 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens of or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Article 46 of the Constitution states that “The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. 1992 that reservations could not exceed 50 per cent, anything above which it judged would violate equal access as guaranteed by the Constitution. It thus put a cap on reservations.
However, there are state laws that exceed this 50 per cent limit and these are under litigation in the Supreme Court. 69 per cent and applies to about 87 per cent of the population. In parliament, caste and tribe based reservations are provided to make it more representative. Allocation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Tribes in the Lok Sabha are made on the basis of proportion of Scheduled Castes and Tribes in the State concerned to that of the total population.