This page robert bringhurst the elements of typographic style pdf about quotation marks in English. They are used in groups of 2, as a pair of opening and closing marks. However, these three characters have quite different purposes.
Quotation marks show that part of the text is either a person speaking or a quotation. A publisher’s or author’s style can be considered as more important than national preferences. Good morning, Frank,’ said HAL. Good morning, Frank,” said HAL. HAL said, “Good morning, Dave,”’.
Sometimes, quotations are nested in more than two levels. Darcy half as well as I do my dear Wickham, you must be very happy. It is a great comfort to have you so rich, and when you have nothing else to do, I hope you will think of us. I am sure Wickham would like a place at court very much, and I do not think we shall have quite money enough to live upon without some help. Darcy about it, if you had rather not. The Spanish convention uses closing quotation marks at the beginning of all subsequent paragraphs beyond the first.
Everything was going extremely well. HAL said that everything was going extremely well. He shared his “wisdom” with me. The lunch lady plopped a glob of “food” onto my tray.
She attempted to use her “strength” to lift the weight. Quotation marks are also used to indicate that the writer realizes that a word is not being used in its current commonly accepted sense. For example, to indicate that a quoted word is not official terminology, or that a quoted phrase presupposes things that the author does not necessarily agree with. Like any such device, scare quotes lose their force and irritate readers if overused. Cheese is derived from milk. Cheese” is derived from a word in Old English. Cheese has calcium, protein, and phosphorus.
The two may, however, in these cases, be to some degree interchangeable. Quotation marks, rather than italics, are generally used for the titles of shorter works. Articles in books, magazines, journals, etc. This usage can be confused with ironic or altered-usage quotation, sometimes with unintended humor. With regard to quotation marks adjacent to periods and commas, there are two styles of punctuation in widespread use. Both systems have the same rules regarding question marks, exclamation points, colons and semicolons.
They differ on the treatment of periods and commas. This style of punctuation is common in the U. Canada, and in the U. When dealing with direct speech, American rules place periods and commas inside the quotation marks all the time, but the alternative usage varies. In fiction, both styles are the same. In non-fiction, British publishers may permit placing punctuation that is not part of the person’s speech inside the quotation marks but prefer that it be placed outside.
I feel free from care and anxiety. In all major forms of English, question marks and exclamation marks are placed inside or outside quoted material depending on whether they apply to the whole sentence or just the quoted portion, but colons and semicolons are always placed outside. In the first two sentences above, only one punctuation mark is used at the end of each. Is there anybody out there? When a quotation is followed by other writing on a line of text, a space follows the closing quotation mark unless it is immediately followed by other punctuation within the sentence, such as a colon or closing punctuation. These exceptions are ignored by some Asian computer systems that systematically display quotation marks with the included spacing, as this spacing is part of the fixed-width characters. There is generally no space between an opening quotation mark and the following word, or a closing quotation mark and the preceding word.
In some languages, if it is desired to include the same quotation marks used to delimit a string inside the string, the quotation marks are doubled. One can skirt these limitations, however, by using the HTML character codes or entities. Quotation marks that are not automatically altered by computer programs are known as “dumb quotes”. Long quotations were also set this way, at full size and full measure. Quotation marks were first cut in metal type during the middle of the sixteenth century, and were used copiously by some printers by the seventeenth. They first began to quote direct speech in 1714. By 1749 single quotation marks, or inverted commas, were commonly used to denote direct speech.
Pearson Education Company, 4th edition, p. The Chicago Manual of Style Online, accessed February 17, 2010. Oxford University Press, 2005, p. Appleton and company, 1921, p. See the WWW Consortium tables here. You can change this page. Please use the preview button before saving.
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