Please forward this error screen to 193. This article is about physical pain. Because it is a complex, subjective phenomenon, defining pain has been a challenge. Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or textbook of pain pdf free download tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.
Pain motivates the individual to withdraw from damaging situations, to protect a damaged body part while it heals, and to avoid similar experiences in the future. Sometimes pain arises in the absence of any detectable stimulus, damage or disease. Pain is the most common reason for physician consultation in most developed countries. Some nociceptors respond to more than one of these modalities and are consequently designated polymodal. Nociceptive pain may also be divided into “visceral”, “deep somatic” and “superficial somatic” pain. It may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting and may be described as sickening, deep, squeezing, and dull.
It is a type of neuropathic pain. It is often described as shooting, crushing, burning or cramping. If the pain is continuous for a long period, parts of the intact body may become sensitized, so that touching them evokes pain in the phantom limb. Vigorous vibration or electrical stimulation of the stump, or current from electrodes surgically implanted onto the spinal cord, all produce relief in some patients.
This phantom body pain is initially described as burning or tingling, but may evolve into severe crushing or pinching pain, or the sensation of fire running down the legs or of a knife twisting in the flesh. Onset may be immediate or may not occur until years after the disabling injury. Surgical treatment rarely provides lasting relief. Headache, back pain, and stomach pain are sometimes diagnosed as psychogenic. Sufferers are often stigmatized, because both medical professionals and the general public tend to think that pain from a psychological source is not “real”. However, specialists consider that it is no less actual or hurtful than pain from any other source. Breakthrough pain is transitory acute pain that comes on suddenly and is not alleviated by the patient’s regular pain management.
It is common in cancer patients who often have background pain that is generally well-controlled by medications, but who also sometimes experience bouts of severe pain that from time to time “breaks through” the medication. Science Museum Painless Exhibition Series. The ability to experience pain is essential for protection from injury, and recognition of the presence of injury. These individuals are at risk of tissue damage and infection due to undiscovered injuries. People with diabetes-related nerve damage, for instance, sustain poorly-healing foot ulcers as a result of decreased sensation.
Children with this condition incur carelessly-repeated damage to their tongues, eyes, joints, skin, and muscles. Some die before adulthood, and others have a reduced life expectancy. Acute and chronic pain are also associated with increased depression, anxiety, fear, and anger. Descartes’s work, along with Avicenna’s, prefigured the 19th-century development of specificity theory. Specificity theory saw pain as “a specific sensation, with its own sensory apparatus independent of touch and other senses”. Another theory that came to prominence in the 18th and 19th centuries was intensive theory, which conceived of pain not as a unique sensory modality, but an emotional state produced by stronger than normal stimuli such as intense light, pressure or temperature.
By the mid-1890s, specificity was backed mostly by physiologists and physicians, and the intensive theory was mostly backed by psychologists. Pain Mechanisms: A New Theory”. Cognitive activities “may affect both sensory and affective experience or they may modify primarily the affective-motivational dimension. Thus, excitement in games or war appears to block both dimensions of pain, while suggestion and placebos may modulate the affective-motivational dimension and leave the sensory-discriminative dimension relatively undisturbed. The paper ends with a call to action: “Pain can be treated not only by trying to cut down the sensory input by anesthetic block, surgical intervention and the like, but also by influencing the motivational-affective and cognitive factors as well. Regions of the cerebral cortex associated with pain. Dozens of different types of nociceptor ion channels have so far been identified, and their exact functions are still being determined.