The forbidden secret jonathan gray pdf

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Greater coat of arms of the United States. Flag of the United States. The amendment prohibited requiring a poll tax for voters in federal elections. But it was not until 1966 that the U. Subsequent litigation related to potential discriminatory effects of voter registration requirements has generally been based on application of this clause. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

History of the poll tax by state from 1868 to 1966. This required that voting not be limited by “race, color, or previous condition of servitude. All voters were required to pay the poll tax, but in practice it most affected the poor. 19th century, temporarily disturbing Democratic rule. Proponents of the poll tax downplayed this aspect and assured white voters they would not be affected. Passage of poll taxes began in earnest in the 1890s, as Democrats wanted to prevent another Populist-Republican coalition.

Despite election violence and fraud, African Americans were still winning numerous local seats. For example, potential voters had to be “assessed” in Arkansas, and blacks were utterly ignored in the assessment. From 1900 to 1937, such use of the poll tax was nearly ignored by the federal government. Some state-level initiatives repealed it. United States, but is conferred by the state and, save as restrained by the Fifteenth and Nineteenth Amendments and other provisions of the Federal Constitution, the state may condition suffrage as it deems appropriate. The issue remained prominent, as most African Americans in the South were disenfranchised.