Voynich manuscript pdf high resolution

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Polish book dealer who purchased it in 1912. Some voynich manuscript pdf high resolution the pages are missing, with around 240 remaining.

The text is written from left to right, and most of the pages have illustrations or diagrams. Some pages are foldable sheets. The mystery of the meaning and origin of the manuscript has excited the popular imagination, making the manuscript the subject of novels and speculation. None of the many hypotheses proposed over the last hundred years has yet been independently verified.

The total number of pages is around 240, but the exact number depends on how the manuscript’s unusual foldouts are counted. 1 to 116, using numerals of a later date. From the various numbering gaps in the quires and pages, it seems likely that in the past the manuscript had at least 272 pages in 20 quires, some of which were already missing when Wilfrid Voynich acquired the manuscript in 1912. The results were consistent for all samples tested and indicated a date for the parchment between 1404 and 1438. Protein testing in 2014 revealed that the parchment was made from calf skin, and multispectral analysis showed that it was unwritten on before the manuscript was created. The parchment was created with care, but deficiencies exist and the quality is assessed as average, at best.

Some folios are thicker than the usual parchment thickness, such as bifolios 42 and 47. Insect holes are present on the first and last folios of the manuscript in the current order and suggest that a wooden cover was present before the later covers, and discolouring on the edges points to a tanned leather inside cover. Many pages contain substantial drawings or charts which are colored with paint. The ink of the drawings, text and page and quire numbers had similar microscopic characteristics. The similarity between the drawing inks and text inks suggested a contemporaneous origin. The pigments were considered inexpensive.