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The ray tracing algorithm builds an image by extending rays into a scene. Illustration of the ray tracing algorithm for one pixel up to the first bounce. Scenes may also incorporate data from images and models captured by means such as digital photography. Typically, each ray must be tested for intersection with some subset of all the objects in the scene. Certain illumination algorithms and reflective or translucent materials may require more rays to be re-cast into the scene.
Since the overwhelming majority of light rays from a given light source do not make it directly into the viewer’s eye, a “forward” simulation could potentially waste a tremendous amount of computation on light paths that are never recorded. Therefore, the shortcut taken in raytracing is to presuppose that a given ray intersects the view frame. After either a maximum number of reflections or a ray traveling a certain distance without intersection, the ray ceases to travel and the pixel’s value is updated. In nature, a light source emits a ray of light which travels, eventually, to a surface that interrupts its progress.
It might also reflect all or part of the light ray, in one or more directions. Less commonly, a surface may absorb some portion of the light and fluorescently re-emit the light at a longer wavelength color in a random direction, though this is rare enough that it can be discounted from most rendering applications. Between absorption, reflection, refraction and fluorescence, all of the incoming light must be accounted for, and no more. Some of these rays travel in such a way that they hit our eye, causing us to see the scene and so contribute to the final rendered image. This algorithm has since been termed “ray casting”. The idea behind ray casting is to shoot rays from the eye, one per pixel, and find the closest object blocking the path of that ray.
Think of an image as a screen-door, with each square in the screen being a pixel. This is then the object the eye sees through that pixel. The simplifying assumption is made that if a surface faces a light, the light will reach that surface and not be blocked or in shadow. The shading of the surface is computed using traditional 3D computer graphics shading models. If a mathematical surface can be intersected by a ray, it can be rendered using ray casting.