Wolf head, 1-100 CE, bronze, Roman, Cleveland Museum of Art. Rome, each year, on February 15, to avert women who run with the wolves pdf download spirits and purify the city, releasing health and fertility. Lycaean god, whom the Greeks call Pan and the Romans Lupercus,” as nude, save for a goatskin girdle.
Of its various rituals, the most important came to be those of the Lupercalia. Rome, had elements in common with the Roman Lupercalia. Lupercalia was essential to Rome’s safety and well-being. The remark was addressed to the senator Andromachus by Gelasius in an extended literary epistle that was virtually a diatribe against the Lupercalia. Gelasius finally abolished the Lupercalia, after a long dispute. Oruch says that there is no written record of Gelasius ever intending a replacement of Lupercalia.
Lupercalia customs, and the claim seems to originate from misconceptions about festivities. Like the cultivated fig, its fruit is pendulous, and the tree exudes a milky sap if cut. Lupercus, and ran near-naked along the old Palatine boundary, which was marked out by stones. Antony offered Caesar a crown during the Lupercalia, an act that was widely interpreted as a sign that Caesar aspired to make himself king and was gauging the reaction of the crowd. Caesar’s civil wars, and was not re-established in the reforms of his successor, Augustus.